209 Quintillion Calculations per Second and the World’s Most Secure Computer Network

Few folks know {that a} quadrillion comes after a trillion.
Even fewer know {that a} quintillion comes after a quadrillion.
That’s partly as a result of the human mind can’t perceive a quantity so massive. It’s additionally as a result of there aren’t many matters of dialog the place these massive numbers are related.
A trillion is a gigantic, nearly incomprehensible quantity.
For instance, a trillion seconds in the past was about 30,000 BC.
It’s frequent information that the astronomical US authorities spending, deficit, and debt figures all attain into the trillions. But apart from that, discovering one thing that runs into the trillions is just not one thing most individuals are accustomed to.
What a few quadrillion?
A quadrillion seconds in the past was about 32 million years in the past.
It’s exhausting to consider something so massive that individuals measure it in a quadrillion (a thousand trillions). As far as I do know, the solely factor that reaches a quadrillion are some estimates of the whole notional worth of all derivatives in the world.
What a few quintillion?
A quintillion is one with 18 zeros behind it.
A quintillion seconds in the past was about 32 billion years in the past. For perspective, scientists consider the Big Bang, and thus the universe’s age, to be 13.8 billion years.
What matter of on a regular basis dialog might probably be so massive that individuals measure it in quintillions?
I do know of just one factor: Bitcoin’s hash fee of 209 quintillion calculations per second which helps to make it the most safe laptop community in the world.
Hash Rate
The cumulative computing energy of all Bitcoin miners is the total community’s hash fee.
It refers to the variety of hashes—or calculations—per second that Bitcoin miners dedicate to fixing the Proof of Work math issues.
The probabilities of a miner fixing the Proof of Work downside—and thus incomes the rewards—is proportionate to its hashing energy relative to the total community.
A miner contributing 1% of the total hash fee ought to earn 1% of the total rewards, consisting of latest Bitcoins created and the transaction charges.
The hash fee of the total Bitcoin community not too long ago exceeded 209 quintillion calculations per second, which is expressed in exahash per second (EH/s).

209 quintillion calculations per second is an astonishing and mind-bending quantity of computing energy.
Remember, one quintillion seconds in the past was about 32 billion years in the past. For perspective, scientists consider the Big Bang, and thus the universe’s age, to be 13.8 billion years.
That’s what makes the Bitcoin community the world’s strongest assortment of processing energy by orders of magnitude—and the most safe.
To even consider attacking Bitcoin, a possible attacker would wish to acquire an inconceivable quantity of electrical energy and laptop {hardware}—over 51% of the community’s combination computing energy (hash fee). And even then, they’d nonetheless want to beat a number of daunting hurdles.
But let’s assume that occurred. The most the attacker might do is double spend their transactions in a few of the most up-to-date blocks. They wouldn’t have the ability to create new Bitcoins or modify outdated transactions. This is what is called a 51% Attack.
For sensible functions, a 51% Attack can be inconceivable as a result of it could require compiling extra computing energy than any entity is able to doing or conceivably might in the future.
According to some estimates, it could require an attacker to spend scores of billions on laptop {hardware}—and that’s with the unrealistic assumption they might even supply the tools if that they had the cash—and tens of thousands and thousands per day on electrical energy to also have a slight probability at tampering with Bitcoin’s latest transaction historical past.
Also, the value to carry out a 51% Attack is prone to develop considerably increased as the Difficult Adjustment will increase the problem of fixing the Proof of Work issues and thus the computing energy and electrical energy required to assault the community.
But let’s say somebody tried to make a 51% Attack on Bitcoin.
The return on funding for the attacker wouldn’t be engaging. Even if the assault have been profitable, it could crash the worth of Bitcoin.
In brief, it could be extraordinarily costly and difficult to execute with little or no financial reward.
That’s how highly effective financial incentives shield Bitcoin and make attacking it inconceivable and uneconomic.
Ultimately, anybody who desires to assault Bitcoin will understand that it is going to be extra worthwhile to purchase Bitcoin or mine it actually than to attempt to assault it. In different phrases, when you can’t beat them, be a part of them.
It’s additionally vital that the hash fee is geographically dispersed. Below is a chart that estimates the nations the place Bitcoin’s computing energy is positioned.

We can see that China beforehand held a dominant place, however now the Hash Rate is far more diversified, which makes Bitcoin much more resilient.
It’s additionally price noting that simply because a selected nation is chargeable for a sure share of the hash fee doesn’t imply all miners inside that nation are managed by a single entity.
Here’s the backside line.
The quantity of electrical energy required to run the Bitcoin community makes it the most safe laptop community in the world.
It’s all a part of Bitcoin’s ingenious financial incentives, which creates a virtuous cycle.
Step #1: The increased the hash fee, the tougher it’s to assault Bitcoin and the safer it turns into.
Step #2: The safer Bitcoin turns into, the extra engaging it’s as a dependable retailer of worth.
Step #3: The extra engaging it’s as a retailer of worth, the extra folks will demand and maintain it.
Step #4: As extra folks maintain and demand it, the increased the value goes.
Step #5: The increased the value goes, the extra individuals are incentivized to get into mining Bitcoin.
Step #6: The extra computing energy devoted to Bitcoin mining, the increased the hash fee and the safer it turns into. Go again to step 1.
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